To be successful in obtaining any given job, you must be able to demonstrate that you possess a certain mix of skills that will allow you to carry out the duties required by that job. This skill mix will vary a great deal from job to job; to determine the skills necessary for the jobs you are seeking, you can read job advertisements or more generic job descriptions, such as those found later in this book. If you want to be effective in the job search, you must directly show employers that you possess the skills needed to be successful in filling the position. These skills will initially be described on your resume and then discussed again during the interview process.
Skills are either general or specific. General skills are those that are developed throughout your college years by taking classes, being employed, and getting involved in other related activities such as volunteer work or campus organizations. General skills include the ability to read and write, to perform computations, to think critically, and to communicate effectively. Specific skills are also acquired on the job and in the classroom, but they allow you to complete tasks that require specialized knowledge. Computer programming, drafting, language translating, and copyediting are just a few examples of specific skills that may relate to a given job.
To develop a list of skills relevant to employers, you must first identify the general skills you possess, then list specific skills you have to offer, and, finally, examine which of these skills employers are seeking.
Identifying Your General Skills. Because you possess or will possess a college degree, employers will assume that you can read and write, perform certain basic computations, think critically, and communicate effectively. Employers will want to see that you have acquired these skills, and they will want to know which additional general skills you possess.
One way to begin identifying skills is to write an experiential diary. An experiential diary lists all the tasks you were responsible for completing for each job you've held and then outlines the skills required to do those tasks. You may list several skills for any given task. This diary allows you to distinguish between the tasks you performed and the underlying skills required to complete those tasks. Here's an example:
For each job or experience you have participated in, develop a worksheet based on the example shown here. On a resume, you may want to describe these skills rather than simply listing tasks. Skills are easier for the employer to appreciate, especially when your experience is very different from the employment you are seeking. In addition to helping you identify general skills, this experiential diary will prepare you to speak more effectively in an interview about the qualifications you possess.
Identifying Your Specific Skills. It may be easier to identify your specific skills because you can definitely say whether you can speak other languages, program a computer, draft a map or diagram, or edit a document using appropriate symbols and terminology.
Using your experiential diary, identify the points in your history where you learned how to do something very specific, and decide whether you have a beginning, intermediate, or advanced knowledge of how to use that particular skill. Right now, be sure to list every specific skill you have, and don't consider whether you like using the skill. Write down a list of specific skills you have acquired and the level of competence you possess-beginning, intermediate, or advanced.
Relating Your Skills to Employers. You probably have thought about a couple of different jobs you might be interested in obtaining, and one way to begin relating the general and specific skills you possess to a potential employer's needs is to read actual advertisements for these types of positions.
For example, you might be interested in a career as a senior editor for a magazine. A typical job listing might read, "Requires 2-5 years experience, organizational and interpersonal skills, imagination, drive, and the ability to work under pressure." If you then used any one of a number of general sources of information that describe the job of senior editor, you would find additional information. Senior editors also develop story ideas, make assignments, work with staff and freelance writers, edit articles, and coordinate with other magazine departments, including the art department and sales.
Begin building a comprehensive list of required skills with the first job description you read. Exploring adver-tisements for and descriptions of several types of related positions will reveal an important core of skills that is necessary for obtaining the type of work in which you're interested. In building this list, include both general and specific skills.
Following is a sample list of skills needed to be successful as a senior editor for a magazine. These items were extracted from general resources and actual job listings:
On a separate sheet of paper, try to generate a comprehensive list of required skills for at least one job that you are considering.
The list of general skills that you develop for a given career path would be valuable for any number of jobs for which you might apply. Many of the specific skills would also be transferable to other types of positions. For example, developing story ideas is a required skill for magazine editors, and it would also be a required skill for senior editors working on a newspaper.
Now review the list of skills that are required for jobs you are considering, and check off those skills that you know you possess. You should refer to these specific skills on the resume that you write for this type of job.